Micromechanical and Macroscopic Modelling (MMM)
Modeling macroscopic material behavior with machine learning algorithms trained by micromechanical simulations
D. Reimann, K. C. Nidadavolu, H. u. Hassan, N. Vajragupta, P. Junker, A. Hartmaier.
Frontiers in Materials, 6, 1-19, (2019)
Micromechanical modeling of material behavior has become an accepted approach to describe the macroscopic mechanical properties of polycrystalline materials in a microstructure-sensitive way. The microstructure is modeled by a representative volume element (RVE), and the anisotropic mechanical behavior of individual grains is described by a crystal plasticity model. Such micromechanical models are subjected to mechanical loads in a finite element (FE) simulation and their macroscopic behavior is obtained from a homogenization procedure. However, such micromechanical simulations with a discrete representation of the material microstructure are computationally very expensive, in particular when conducted for 3D models, such that it is prohibitive to apply them for process simulations of macroscopic components. In this work, we suggest a new approach to develop microstructure-sensitive, yet flexible and numerically efficient macroscopic material models by using micromechanical simulations for training Machine Learning (ML) algorithms to capture the mechanical response of various microstructures under different loads. In this way, the trained ML algorithms represent a new macroscopic constitutive relation, which is demonstrated here for the case of damage modeling. In a second application of the combination of ML algorithms and micromechanical modeling, a proof of concept is presented for the application of trained ML algorithms for microstructure design with respect to desired mechanical properties. The input data consist of different stress-strain curves obtained from micromechanical simulations of uniaxial testing of a wide range of microstructures. The trained ML algorithm is then used to suggest grain size distributions, grain morphologies and crystallographic textures, which yield the desired mechanical response for a given application. For validation purposes, the resulting grain microstructure parameters are used to generate RVEs, accordingly and the macroscopic stress-strain curves for those microstructures are calculated and compared with the target quantities. The two examples presented in this work, demonstrate clearly that ML methods can be trained by micromechanical simulations, which capture material behavior and its relation to microstructural mechanisms in a physically sound way. Since the quality of the ML algorithms is only as good as that of the micromechanical model, it is essential to validate these models properly. Furthermore, this approach allows a hybridization of experimental and numerical data.
Keyword(s): machine learning, micromechanical modeling, crystal plasticity, damage, homogenization, microstructure design