Influence of Ni on martensitic phase transformations in NiTi shape memory alloys
J. Frenzel, E. George, A. Dlouhy, C. Somsen, M. F.-X. Wagner, G. Eggeler.
Acta Materialia, 58, 3444-3458, (2010)
High-precision data on phase transformation temperatures in NiTi, including numerical expressions for the effect of Ni on MS, MF, AS, AF and T0, are obtained, and the reasons for the large experimental scatter observed in previous studies are discussed. Clear experimental evidence is provided confirming the predictions of Tang et al. 1999 regarding deviations from a linear relation between the thermodynamic equilibrium temperature and Ni concentration. In addition to affecting the phase transition temperatures, increasing Ni contents are found to decrease the width of thermal hysteresis and the heat of transformation. These findings are rationalized on the basis of the crystallographic data of Prokoshkin et al. 2004 and the theory of Ball and James. The results show that it is important to document carefully the details of the arc-melting procedure used to make shape memory alloys and that, if the effects of processing are properly accounted for, precise values for the Ni concentration of the NiTi matrix can be obtained.