On the influence of small quantities of Bi and Sb on the evolution of microstructure during swaging and heat treatments in copper
F. Otto, J. Frenzel, G. Eggeler.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 509, 4073-4080, (2011)
In the present work, the influence of small amounts of Bi and Sb on the microstructural evolution of Cu during an ingot metallurgy processing route is investigated. Both elements are known to segregate to grain boundaries in Cu. Cu ingots with an outer diameter of 40 mm containing 0.008 wt.% Bi and 0.92 wt.% Sb, respectively, were vacuum induction melted, cast, and gradually swaged down to a final diameter of 11.7 mm with several intermediate annealing steps. Subsequent annealing treatments were conducted to investigate the microstructural evolution of the swaged bars. Optical microscopy, hardness testing and orientation imaging microscopy were used to characterize the deformation and recrystallization behavior, as well as the evolution of texture in the alloys. The results are then compared to those obtained for pure Cu. It is shown that even small amounts of alloying elements significantly alter the hardening behavior and suppress recrystallization at low temperatures. At higher temperatures, recrystallization in Cu, Cu–Bi and Cu–Sb leads to different textures.