Finite element modeling of brittle and ductile modes in cutting of 3C-SiC
M. Alam, L. Zhao, N. Vajragupta, J. Zhang, A. Hartmaier.
Crystals, MDPI AG,, 11, 1286, (2021)
Machining of brittle ceramics is a challenging task because the requirements on the cutting tools are extremely high and the quality of the machined surface strongly depends on the chosen process parameters. Typically, the efficiency of a machining process increases with the depth of cut or the feed rate of the tool. However, for brittle ceramics, this easily results in very rough surfaces or even in crack formation. The transition from a smooth surface obtained for small depths of cut to a rough surface for larger depths of cut is called a brittle-to-ductile transition in machining. In this work, we investigate the mechanisms of this brittle-to-ductile transition for diamond cutting of an intrinsically brittle 3C-SiC ceramic with finite element modeling. The Drucker–Prager model has been used to describe plastic deformation of the material and the material parameters have been determined by an inverse method to match the deformation behavior of the material under nanoindentation, which is a similar loading state as the one occurring during cutting. Furthermore, a damage model has been introduced to describe material separation during the machining process and also crack initiation in subsurface regions. With this model, grooving simulations of 3C-SiC with a diamond tool have been performed and the deformation and damage mechanisms have been analyzed. Our results reveal a distinct transition between ductile and brittle cutting modes as a function of the depth of cut. The critical depth of cut for this transition is found to be independent of rake angle; however, the surface roughness strongly depends on the rake angle of the tool.
Keyword(s): 3C-SiC; Drucker–Prager model; machining; brittle–ductile transition; roughness; subsurface damage