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Phase-field study of Zener drag and pinning of cylindrical particles in polycrystalline materials
Zener drag and pinning in composites reinforced with cylindrical particles is investigated using three-dimensional phase-field simulations. Detailed systematic studies clarify the effect of relative orientation of the particle and length/diameter ratio on the kinetics of drag. It is shown that a combination of local equilibrium at junctions in contact with the particles, initial driving force of the migrating grain boundaries, and configuration of the particles within the polycrystalline matrix determine the intensity and persistence of drag and pinning effects.