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Multi‑phase‑field simulation of microstructure evolution in metallic foams
This paper represents a model for microstructure formation in metallic foams based on the multiphase- field approach. The model allows to naturally account for the effect of additives which prevent two gas bubbles from coalescence. By applying a non-merging criterion to the phase fields and at the same time raising the free energy penalty associated with additives, it is possible to completely prevent coalescence of bubbles in the time window of interest and thus focus on the formation of a closed porous microstructure. On the other hand, using a modification of this criterion along with lower free energy barriers we investigate with this model initiation of coalescence and the evolution of open structures. The method is validated and used to simulate foam structure formation both in two and three dimensions.