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How dislocation substructures evolve during long-term creep of a 12% Cr tempered martensitic ferritic steel
We document the evolution of dislocation densities in tempered martensite ferritic steels during long-term aging and creep. Scanning transmission electron microscopy in combination with a high-angle annular dark-field detector is used to study dislocations in a 12% Cr steel. During aging, the dislocation density quickly decreases by a factor 2 and then remains constant. Long-term creep results in an initial decrease by a factor 10, and after this sharp drop, the dislocation density continues to decrease.