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Combined volumetric, energetic and microstructural defect analysis of ECAP-processed nickel
Difference dilatometry and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) are used to investigate defect annealing in ultrafine grained nickel processed by equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) at various temperatures. Different defect types and processes such as vacancies, dislocations, grain boundaries and grain-boundary relaxation can be detected. They can be distinguished due to their distinct kinetics as revealed by the release of excess volume and excess heat during linear heating. The data are quantified in combination with a detailed characterization of the microstructure. Values for the absolute vacancy concentration, the dislocation density, the grain boundary expansion and the excess of grain boundary expansion in ECAP-processed nickel are derived.