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45-degree rafting in Ni-based superalloys: a combined phase-field and strain gradient crystal plasticity study
45° rafting of Ni-based superalloys has been investigated with the help of creep test simulations applying a strain gradient crystal plasticity model coupled to the multi-phase field method. This mode of rafting lies in between P- and N-type rafting modes. The model parameters are calibrated against experimental data for N-type rafting under high temperature and low stress creep condition. By increasing the stress level, the mixed-mode rafting of precipitates with a clear tendency toward formation of 45° rafts is observed. We show that the key factor for the occurrence of this type of rafting is the generation of highly localized creep strain of more than 10% due to non-homogeneous creep deformation in the form of slip bands. We have successfully captured the evolution of microstructure under high stress leading to production of localized shear bands.