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Performance of mixed and enhanced finite elements for strain localization in hypoplasticity
Displacement and mixed finite element formulations of shear localization in materials are presented. The formulations are based on hypoplastic constitutive laws for soils and the mixed enhanced treatment involving displacement, strain and stress rates as independently varied fields. Included in these formulations are the standard displacement method, the three-field mixed formulation, the enhanced assumed strain method and the mixed enhanced strain method. Several numerical examples demonstrating the capability and performance of the different finite element formulations are presented. The numerical results are compared with available experimental data for Hostun RF sand and numerical results for Karlsruhe sand on biaxial tests. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.