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Large-Scale benchmark of exchange–correlation functionals for the determination of electronic band gaps of solids
We compile a large data set designed for the efficient benchmarking of exchange–correlation functionals for the calculation of electronic band gaps. The data set comprises information on the experimental structure and band gap of 472 nonmagnetic materials and includes a diverse group of covalent-, ionic-, and van der Waals-bonded solids. We used it to benchmark 12 functionals, ranging from standard local and semilocal functionals, passing through meta-generalized-gradient approximations, and several hybrids. We included both general purpose functionals, like the Perdew–Burke–Ernzerhof approximation, and functionals specifically crafted for the determination of band gaps. The comparison of experimental and theoretical band gaps shows that the modified Becke–Johnson is at the moment the best available density functional, closely followed by the Heyd–Scuseria–Ernzerhof screened hybrid from 2006 and the high-local-exchange generalized-gradient approximation.