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Effective elastic moduli in solids with high density of cracks
We investigate the weakening of elastic materials through randomly distributed circles and cracks numerically and compare the results to predictions from homogenization theories. We find a good agreement for the case of randomly oriented cracks of equal length in an isotropic plane-strain medium for lower crack densities; for higher densities the material is weaker than predicted due to precursors of percolation. For a parallel alignment of cracks, where percolation does not occur, we analytically predict a power law decay of the effective elastic constants for high crack densities, and confirm this result numerically.