Just another WordPress site - Ruhr-Universität Bochum
Orthoesters versus 2-O-Acyl glycosides as glycosyl donors: Theoretical and experimental studies
n-Pentenyl orthoesters (NPOEs) undergo routine acid catalyzed rearrangement into 2-O-acyl n-pentenyl glycosides (NPGs). The reactant and product can both function as glycosyl donors affording 1,2-trans linked glycosides predominantly. However, both donors differ in their rates of reactions, the yields they produce, and the nature of their byproducts, indicating that the NPOE/NPG pair may not be reacting through the same intermediates. We have therefore applied quantum chemical calculations using DFT methods and MP second order perturbation theory to learn more about orthoesters; and their 2-O-acyl glycosidic counterparts. The calculations show that in the case of a manno NPG and NPOE pair, each donor goes initially to a different cationic intermediate. Thus, the former goes to a high-energy oxo-carbenium ion before descending to a trioxolenium ion in which the charge is distributed over the pyrano ring oxygen, as well as the carbonyl and ether oxygen atoms of the putative C2 ester. On the other hand, ionization of the NPOE produces a dioxolenium ion lying slightly above the more stable trioxolenium counterpart. For the gluco pair, the NPG also goes to a very high-energy oxo-carbenium ion, which also descends to a trioxolenium ion. However, unlike the manno analogue, the gluco NPOE does not give a dioxolenium ion; indeed, the dioxolenium is not energetically distinguishable from the trioxolenium counterpart. The theoretical observations have been tested experimentally. Thus, it was found that with manno derivatives, the orthoester is a more reactive donor than the corresponding NPG donor, whereas, for gluco derivatives, there is no advantage to using one over the other, unless one resorts to carefully selected promoters.