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Scale bridging modeling of plastic deformation and damage initiation in polycrystals
Plastic deformation of polycrystalline materials includes dislocation slip, twinning, grain boundary sliding and eigenstrain produced by phase transformations and diffusion. These mechanisms are often alternative and competing in different loading conditions described by stress level, strain rate and temperature. Modelling of plasticity in polycrystalline materials has a clear multiscale character, such that plastic deformation has been widely studied on the macro-scale by the finite element methods, on the meso-scale by representative volume element approaches, on the micro-scale by dislocation dynamics methods and on the atomic scale by molecular dynamics simulations. Advancement and further improvement of the reliability of macro-scale constitutive models is expected to originate from developments at microstructural or even smaller length scales by transfering the observed mechanisms to the macro-scale in a suited manner. Currently efficient modelling tools have been developed for different length scales and there still exists a challenge in passing relevant information between models on different scales. This chapter aims at overviewing the current stage of modelling tools at different length scales, discussing the possible approaches to bridge different length scales, and reporting successful multiscale modelling applications.