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On the effect of grain boundary segregation on creep and creep rupture
The present work investigates the effect of grain boundary chemistry and crystallography on creep and on creep damage accumulation in Cu–0.008 wt.% Bi and Cu–0.92 wt.% Sb at stresses ranging from 10 to 20 MPa and temperatures between 773 and 873 K. Small additions of Bi and Sb significantly reduce the rupture strain and rupture time during creep of Cu. High stress exponents (Cu–Bi) and high apparent activation energies for creep (Cu–Bi and Cu–Sb) are obtained. Sb promotes creep cavitation on random high-angle grain boundaries. Bi, on the other hand, causes brittle failure when small crack-like cavities cause decohesion. Both elements suppress dynamic recrystallization, which occurs during creep of Cu at high stresses and temperatures.